Football, apart from being the most popular sport and practically a religion for a considerable amount of the Spanish population, is also a huge business to be taken into account in the southern European country’s economy. According to the report in 2017 of the Business School OBM, of every 100€ generated in the Spanish economy, 2 of such are generated by the ‘La Liga’ which is the first tier of Spanish football while football itself grows at a higher pace than the national economy. Moreover, it adds that more than 1% of the national GDP is composed by football income and that out of 1000 people who work in Spain, 7 of them do so in a job related to football. Furthermore, far from backing down, football is continuously growing as a popular sport which is portrayed in tangible business figures. During the last season (2017/2018) the Spanish Hacienda– the national tax offices- reached a record tax revenue accounting for 1.227 million euros.
Real Madrid and FC Barcelona
If Spanish football is to be mentioned, it is impossible not to focus on their two main teams of the two biggest cities in the country. Nevertheless, they are not only the two highest earners among Spanish football clubs, but they are currently the two teams with the highest revenues in the world. Real Madrid and FC Barcelona annually account 750’9M and 690’4M respectively leaving historical teams such as Manchester United or Bayern Munich behind.
Source: Compilation based on the bibliographical sources
As to understand at what level these Spanish giants stand in the national economic sphere, firstly it must be mentioned that they respectively occupy the 195th and the 217th position in the National ranking of Spanish enterprises by annual income at a similar level- as it can be appreciated in the graph- of well-known companies such as Danone S.A., the Catalan beer company S.A. Damm or Siemens S.A.
The small scale
On the smaller scale, for many cities and towns in Spain, being in the first or second division is extremely relevant for the football clubs and therefore, for all the employed people related to such clubs and other economic sectors. It is estimated that when the historical club Real Zaragoza relegated to the second division, the club accounted a loss of 20.6 million due to the loss of TV income which led to a substantial decrease of salaries in the club as well as a decrease of tourism in the city due to the increasing irrelevance of the club which has repercussions in many sectors of the city’s economy such as the catering sector.
 Online Business School. 2017. ‘El negocio del fútbol profesional en la economía española’. Last modification the 22nd of May 2017. Available online (link)
 Business Insider. 2018. ‘Hacienda logra el récord de recaudación con el fútbol: 1.227 millones de euros’. Written by Pavel Ramírez. Last modification the 6th of August 2018. Available online (link)
 Deloitte. 2019. ‘Football Money League’. Bullseye. Last modification in January 2019. Available online (link)
 El Economista. 2019. ‘Ranking Nacional de Empresas por Facturación’. Last modification the 4th of February 2019. Available online (link)
 El Economista. 2014. ‘El coste de bajar a Segunda División: así afecta a las ciudades y a su economía’. Last modification the 12th of May 2014. Available online (link)
Business competitiveness is a goal that any company has to reach to stay in the market. That is, a company remains for a long period of time in the market if it is competitive with the rest of companies. When competitive companies come to mind, we think exclusively of large companies, leaving aside medium or small companies (SMEs). SMEs in Spain constitute the majority of the Spanish business fabric. In 2017, 99.87% of the companies, equivalent to 3,274,924 productive units, were made up of SMEs. This situation is not different when we address the issue of transport and logistics operators. Therefore, can only multinationals be competitive?
Obtaining new customers is always a very complex task, therefore, each company must know how to sell its brand. But what is it what attracts the future customer the most? Here we will detail which are the great characteristics that differentiate the multinationals, and the small and medium companies in the logistics field.
Before digging into the differences between both types of companies, we must establish a series of premises. First, there are three types of transport: land (by road and rail), sea and air. This article only focuses on road transport. Second, within the road transport, in turn, can make various distinctions: courier, parcel, groupage, full loads, container ships, special transport and transport of dangerous goods. And, third, we must clarify that this blog will revolve around a specific truck model: the trailers that have a dimension of 13.6 meters and can carry up to a weight of 24 tons.
We all know what large multinationals can offer because their large volume means they can easily comply with the objectives and needs established by customers. This is a matter of great importance because most of them want to forget about the problems that can generate their loads and only need that their merchandise is delivered within the established deadlines. In addition to this valuable benefit, the large volume of transport that these companies have means that they can lower prices and, therefore, be much more competitive.
In contrast to large multinationals, there are small and medium-sized enterprises with limited resources. Being smaller does not necessarily mean worse, and there are several benefits these companies can offer:
-They have close contact with the customer
-They usually perform an excellent customer care service
-They are great at tracking customer routes
On the other hand, some of the disadvantages we identify are the following:
-They set higher prices
-They have a lower number of trucks and collaborators
To illustrate all this, let’s set an example to see both arguments. The customer Z must choose a provider that covers the route Valencia – Madrid since he must make 200 trips between the months of January to March. Company X has 100 trucks of its own plus 50 employees to cover the route Valencia – Madrid. So they can set a price per full trailer of 340 euros. However, company Y has 15 own trucks and 10 collaborators to cover the same route. Having not so many resources, Company Y must increase the price to 380 euros, in order to compete with Company X and be able to get more collaborators.
What can Dos Aguas Consulting do for you?
Dos Aguas Consulting can help you with our knowledge of the Spanish market and business ecosystem. In our work as a company specialized in advising and supporting international companies that want to invest in Spain, we can help you find clients and make a profitable business in the country. Get in touch with us, our trade advisors will help you!
When digital transformation of industries and businesses became the ‘hot topic’ that it is today, several indices soon showed that Spain was lagging behind the average of digital transformation of all European countries. As industries are exposed to continuous digitisation, digital transformation was, and remains to be, a major challenge for Spain . Considering the fact that for decades, Spain was never a leader of industrial movements as the nation’s main sector was (and is) tourism, Spain lagging behind in digitisation somewhat does not come as a surprise . However, recent developments show quite the opposite. The Spanish government recognised the importance of digitisation and launched an initiative in which digital transformation in Spain could contribute to increased earnings of 120 billion euros until 2025 [2,4,5]. Moreover, when it comes to application of digital technologies such as blockchain and the internet of things (IoT), Spain appears to take a lead with more pilots and projects than in the rest of the EU. In this blog, the Dos Aguas Team analyses and summarises the digital transformation of the Spanish market, in order to find out what remains a challenge for Spain, and what Spanish developments can be used as examples of digital transformation done right.
Spain’s digital transformation position
Spain is the 5th largest economy of Europe, and the 13th largest economy of the world . For an economy this large, digital transformation is more of a challenge than for smaller economies, solely caused by the larger magnitude of the transformation. To measure country performances in the context of digital transformation, the European Digital Economy & Society Index (DESI) assesses transformation in five areas: connectivity, human capital, use of internet, integration of digital technology, and digital public services . When looking at the index of 2017 (graph below), Spain indeed scores slightly below the average of the European Union in the first three aspects. The graph also displays the scores of Sweden, a country known for a slightly smaller economy and very progressive culture, which are above average in all five aspects of the graph . However, Spain scores above average in the fourth category (integration of digital technology), and exceptional in the fifth (digital public services), confirming the previously stated suggestion that Spain has both point of improvements, as well as top-of-the-class performances.
Looking at digital transformation from the perspective of individual Spanish companies, results of a survey shows that the priorities of digital trends amongst companies mainly are: becoming accessible via mobile, creating a digital user experience, and dealing with big data . The statistics regarding the priorities amongst these digital trends are graphed below.
Barriers that slow down improvements
The points of improvements of Spain’s digital transformation, according to the scores as presented in the DESI, are related to connectivity, the digitisation of human capital, and overall usage of internet – aspects who are clearly linked to each other. To express that improvements have to be made, the Spanish Business Organisations Confederation (Confederación Española de Organizaciones Empresariales, CEOE) set a goal for Spain to be ranked as number 10 maximum in the DESI by the end of 2020 . However, this goal is not easily met, as several barriers exist that stagnate improvements in these three categories. These barriers include the following: only 54% of the population has basic digital skills, 62% of companies do not have a digital strategy and 20% do not provide any type of digital training to their employees, 79% of organisations are not present on any kind of social media, only 16% of small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) sell their service or product online, and more than one fifth (22%) of management teams have expressed that they are resistant to digital transformation of their companies . What is more, due to high costs of digital transformation and perceived security risks, these statistics are unlikely to change in the near future without an external push.
Governmental initiatives to push for digital transformation
An external push that encourages Spanish organisations to digitally transform must come from the Spanish government. To start, an overall collective awareness of the importance of digital transformation is required. In May 2018, the Digital Enterprise Show (DES) assembled the four major political parties of Spain to discuss and present proposed digital transformation strategies for Spain . The outcome of this conversation is summarised here. Conferences like these slowly bring awareness about the topic to a larger audience, however the barriers ‘cost’ and ‘security risk’ remain existing for SMEs.
Several initiatives have been implemented in an attempt to diminish these barriers. In 2017, financial aid had been given to 25 SMEs in a pilot project to direct implement digital transformation in enterprises in the Spanish industry, and this project has since been rolled out to reach a much larger scale . Another example is the initiative of the Spanish Ministry of Industry (MINECO), to increase the contribution to the country’s GDP by €120 billion until 2025 by digital transformation, as investigated by Roland Berger in collaboration with Siemens [1,2]. The report of this investigation (link, in Spanish) states that successful digital transformation would lead Spanish companies to reduce their production, maintenance and logistics costs by 10% or 20%, and reduce their inventory costs by up to 50% . This would then offset and even overshadow the costs of the digital transformation. The initiatives include the development of a Digital Agenda of Spain to digitalise public administration, and a pilot project to digitalise the country’s department of Justice .
With an eye on the security barrier, the Spanish government launched several nation-wide cyber security projects. This brings us to the country’s high score of integration of digital technologies.
As the graph of the European DESI scores indicates, Spain indeed outperforms the average of the EU, and partially even the leaders of the group, in the areas of digital technology integration and digital public services. In the previous paragraph, we established several governmental initiatives that are implemented to improve the country’s digital transformation. In the two sectors in which Spain outperforms the EU average, these initiatives have clearly already succeeded. However, Spain continues to develop in these areas. For example with the proposed 2018 Stability Programme and Budgetary Plan, which introduced a Digital Services Tax (DST) in April of this year, to be implemented effective immediately . Also, the government’s Public Digital Agenda  and the Public Administration 4.0 strategy  contribute to maintaining this solid digital public service score of the DESI.
On the side of integration of digital technology, Spain progressively takes the lead by becoming a European focal point in blockchain and IoT . As several of our previous blogs already describe, the Spanish government pioneers when it comes to implementing projects related to blockchain and digital currencies, having one of the few national banks worldwide that openly support these technologies . Furthermore, by being one of the smartest cities of the world, Barcelona significantly contributes to an excellent score on digital technology integration . For more information, take a look at our blogs Barcelona: the smart(est) city of Spain and Blockchain in Spain.
Conclusion and investment opportunities
To summarise, there are areas of improvement for Spain as well as areas in which the country leads in the context of digital transformation. This gives way for many investment opportunities. On the one hand, opportunities arise in the need for basic digital transformation in the areas of connectivity, usage of internet and human capital. Combined with the statistics of where companies see the most need of digital improvement, fruitful investment strategies can be made. On the other hand, one can choose to jump on the disruptive technologies train and invest in the innovative technologies that Spain is leading in and further developing. For more information about investment opportunities get in touch with us: our trade advisors will be happy to assist you.
 Signaturit, 16 May 2017, The state of the digital transformation in Spain, according to the latest study from the consultant company Roland Berger and Siemens. Available Online (link) [Last Accessed: 10.10.2018]
 Business Sweden Iberia, 2017, Digital Transformation in the Spanish Industry: Capturing the business opportunities. Available Online (link) [Last Accessed: 10.10.2018]
 Statista, 2015, Digitization key trends among Spanish companies in 2015. Available Online (link) [Last Accessed: 09.10.2018]
 Tim Hinchliffe, May 2018, 4 major political parties to present digital transformation agendas for Spain, Novobrief. Available Online (link) [Last Accessed: 08.10.2018]
 Stefanie Müller, 3 April 2018, How Spain’s rise to digital leader has gone under the radar, DW. Available Online (link) [Last Accessed: 11.10.2018]
 EY, 17 May 2018, Spain proposes digital services tax to be effective in 2018. Available Onine (link) [Last Accessed: 11.10.2018]
 iScoop: Digital Transformation. Available Online (link) [Last Accessed: 10.10.2018]
In the past decade and with increasing quantities, smart cities arose all over the world. A city is defined as ‘smart’ when it “uses information and communication technologies to increase operational efficiency, share information with the public and improve both the quality of government services and citizen welfare” . The key aspects of a smart city are smart technology and data analysis. You can think of, for example, emerging trends as automation, machine learning, and the Internet of Things (IoT). When these technologies are applied in a city, one can find features as smart traffic lights that respond to current traffic situations, autonomous buses, bike sharing services, and smart parking meters that indicate where parking lots are available via an app – and these are just examples in the citytransportation sector . For an overview of smart city features, take a look at the image below.
Herman van den Bosch 
Drivers behind smart city developments
Worldwide, several cities have the reputation of being ‘smarter’ than the rest. Of course, some of these cities have an environment or characteristic that makes them particularly suitable for developments in the smart technology area. For example, cities that are developing very fast in the past years and years to come can adopt smart city traits in their development plans and consequently create the optimal infrastructure for smart technologies to be applied to. These cities include many Asian cities such as Singapore, which the number one smart city in the world . On the other hand, some cities in the Western world have consciously chosen to invest heavily in smart technology and data analysis in order to gain a competitive advantage over other Western cities and attract businesses. All over Europe, selected cities apply an above average number of smart technologies in their municipality and thereby set themselves high above the rest of the European cities. Barcelona is one of them. In 2016, the Catalan capital was voted the second smart city in the world, behind Singapore (Juniper Research ). It is therefore not a surprise that the Smart City Expo World Congress is held in Barcelona this year, after its previous edition took place in Singapore last year.
The Smart City Expo World Congress of 2018
The SCEWC (Smart City Expo World Congress) is the leading global encounter on current urban issues and the smart technological revolution. It was first held in 2011, and it has managed to become the global benchmark event on developments in smart cities ever since . It facilitates a platform for networking, experiences and international business agreements, and it brings together the world’s top decision makers, professionals, and institutions in the context of urban development. This year, the SCEWC is held from 13th November to the 15th November 2018 at the Gran Via Exhibition Centre in Barcelona [1,3]. For more information, take a look on the event’s website (link). This year, the Catalan Government promotes the participation of regional companies in the Smart City Expo: a total of 20 Catalan companies and entities will be present in the Government stand, and over 150 other local companies will participate in the expo . Needless to say that the fact that the international expo is held in Barcelona, combined with the smart tech expertise that can be found in the city, offers many investment opportunities in Spain and boosts the Spanish economy.
Barcelona’s ‘smart’ traits
What is this ‘smart technology expertise’ that makes Barcelona one of the smartest cities of the world, and where does it come from? The development of Barcelona as a smart city started in 2012, when economic challenges were large, caused by the crisis of 2008. Upon taking office, the Mayor of Barcelona from 2011 to 2015 Xavier Trias formed a new team: ‘Smart City Barcelona’, tasked with integrating existing projects and identifying new opportunities to enhance services for all of the city’s people and businesses . The city originally deployed responsive technologies across twelve urban systems, including public transit, parking, street lighting, and waste management . These innovations provided significant cost savings, turned the city into a center for the (then emerging) IoT industry, and simultaneously improved the quality of life for residents.
Today, the city’s smart city plan is called ‘Roadmap to 2020’, and focuses on using open-source technology for a platform that is “more democratic and accessible” to find solutions for “long-term social and wage inequality, climate change, scarcity of natural resources, and employment” . In this roadmap, Barcelona recognizes the value of the large amount of data it possesses. Thus, the plan mentions that the municipality of Barcelona wants to be the sole owner of the network, platform, and data – in order to protect the data and consequently its residents . Yet, the city wants to ensure that people and companies can access information that belongs in the public realm, to improve overall efficiency . For an overview of Barcelona’s smart city traits, take a look at the Govtech article that summarizes all of the city’s activities with smart technologies (link). It is clear that Barcelona pioneers in the field of smart tech. If it maintains its position as innovator, this smart city will remain to be a large factor of the country’s overall good economic conditions.
 Smart City Expo World Congress 2018 website (link)
 Generalitat de Catalunya: The Smart City sector takes root in Catalonia (link)
 10 Times Trade Show information: Smart City Expo World Congress (link)
 Ross Tieman (26 October 2017), Barcelona: Smart city revolution in progress, Financial Times. Available Online (link) [Last Accessed: 26.09.2018]
 Jenny McGrath (24 July 2017), Tech is making life in Barcelona better, even if you don’t know it’s there, Digital Trends. Available Online (link) [Last Accessed: 26.09.2018]
 Laura Adler (19 February 2016), Is Barcelona the smartest city in the world?, GovTech. Available Online (link) [Last Accessed: 27.09.2018]
 Internet of Things (IoT) Agenda: Definition Smart Cities (link)
 Herman van den Bosch: Smart Cities: Slim, slimmer slimst (link)
The optical sector suffered, like many others, a big recession during the generalized economic crisis in 2008 and the years after. However, this is a thing of the past. Currently, it is in a moment of continuous growth and the most evident proof of this is that 2017 ended as the fourth consecutive year of growth.
According to data from the consulting firm GfK, the optics sector closed 2017 with a turnover of 0.5% higher than the previous year, which is 2,080 million euros. This figure gathers the sales of ophthalmic lenses, frames, contact lenses, sunglasses and maintenance products.
Analyzing the demand. How is the Spanish consumer?
According to the report El Observatorio Cetelem Consumo España 2017, regarding optical products, the Spanish consumer is nowadays demanding these products. In fact, “39% of the Spanish respondents have purchased a product related to optics in the last 12 months”.Likewise, in 2017 the Spanish consumer has increased by 48, 72% the expenditure destined for optical products, reaching an average cost of 231 euros.
Regarding the purchase channels, the Spanish buyer shows a more conservative attitude, preferring the physical store to online commerce, due to the fact that in Spain the treatment and personal advice of professionals are highly valued.
Moving to a more global vision, we now analyze the evolution of the other three main optical markets in the European Union: Italy, France, and Germany. In the four-country comparison, Spain was the second that has grown the most after Germany, a country that has registered an upturn of 3.2% in its turnover. Italy and France, however, have suffered from a negative evolution with falls of 1.4% and 1.6%, respectively by the end of 2017. Particularly striking is the case of France, where the market reflects changes in its legislation that limit the reimbursement to the user in the visual equipment of 150 euros.
On the other hand, the impact on the market of imports and exports that Spain makes in this sector is as important as direct sales within the national territory. The value of imports made in 2017 triples that of exports, which means that the balance of the trade balance in the optical sector is negative. This fact highlights the competition that exists in Spain within this sector, where not only national companies stand out, but also international companies have a vital importance that is increasing every year. In this way, the imports in the year 2017 have grown by 10.18% with respect to the previous year.
Figure elaborated by Dos Aguas Consulting
In terms of imports, the Italian and Chinese markets dominate the optics distribution. Italy is a leading country in the optical industry and China bases its power on an extremely attractive price. As for the exports, if we set aside Italy that leads the ranking by far, the distribution is much more homogeneous.
Figure elaborated by Dos Aguas Consulting
The growing trend of the market reflects that opportunities will continue increasing in the optical sector in Spain. A very needed industry for every society and that needs to be covered. This is to only way to help people alleviate the visual deficits, which are increasing among the population of Western countries.
Dos Aguas Consulting can contribute with our knowledge of the optical sector in many ways: from the particularities of the market and its regulations to outlining the profile of the Spanish consumer. In our work as a company specialized in advising and supporting international companies that want to invest in Spain, we can help you find clients and make a profitable business in the country. Get in touch with us, our trade advisors will help you!
A country with more than a thousand windmills. A very eco-friendly way of transportation deeply embedded in its culture: travelling by bike, which leads to an average of 1.3 bikes per inhabitant. Three million solar panels on roofs of buildings and houses and increasing usage and developments of solar bike paths. Next to that, ample recycling initiatives and a strong reputation in the area of innovation [1,4]. However, a very low ranking as 26th compared to fellow EU member states when it comes to the share of renewable energy in the country’s energy mix. What is more, a 50% higher average of CO2 emissions per capita than the average of EU countries. Exotic fruits in supermarkets in every season and worldwide the 10th biggest importer, which, considering the country’s size of roughly 40 thousand square kilometers, is extremely high [3,4]. The Netherlands: sustainability leader or laggard?
Shortcomings of the Netherlands
The numbers and statistics of several researches agree: the Netherlands is not exactly first in class in terms of sustainable performances compared to other European countries, and even the world in general. Looking at the developments of the carbon emissions per capita over the past decades, the Netherlands has always had a higher CO2 emission per capita than the average of the entire EU . Moreover, this gap does not seem to be declining any time soon, as the carbon footprint of the EU appears to lessen even more than the one of the Netherlands (see graph below). Of course, the high population density of the country makes it hard to plant renewable energy sources, and the lack of variety of the available countryside diminishes the options of renewable resources for the Netherlands to choose from. There are for example no hills and mountains, which means that hydropower and other options of renewable energy sources cannot be considered .
CO2 emissions per capita (source: CleanTechnica )
Why does the Netherlands, with its reputation of being “green”, have this relatively high CO2 emission level? The reason for this is driven by three factors. First, as already mentioned, the country has an extremely large population density which leads to a high percentage of the population living in urban areas (a total of 90%) . Urbanization of a country threatens its sustainable development due to rising demand for food production and services based on any sort of energy . Second, the Netherlands hosts Europe’s largest port (Rotterdam) and third largest airport (Schiphol Airport of Amsterdam) – both with large carbon footprints on its own, and an even larger impact on the environment when taking the industry that is built around it into account . This brings me to the third factor, the Dutch industry: as previously stated, the Netherlands is listed 10th as the world’s largest importer. However, when it comes to exports, the Dutch are ranked even higher with, a for its size rather impressive, 8th ranking worldwide . All in all, the country – as small as it is – clearly contributes heavily to usage of fossil fuels and thereby negatively impacts the environment.
Fields in which the Netherlands leads
Thankfully, the Netherlands is aware of its shortcomings. Acknowledging its high usage of energy and its large carbon footprint, the government has committed to improving the countries environmental and climate protection performances whilst working towards the Sustainable Developments goals . The first results are visible: this year, the Netherlands has dropped out of the EU’s “group for greenhouse gas intensity concerns” – a very positive development . Small adjustments are also made. Last year, for example, a new law was implemented that states that plastic bags are no longer allowed to be handed out for free in shops . However, several adaptations take more time. If the Netherlands were to immediately decrease its international trade quantity and businesses operations to diminish its environmental impact, the country would lose its economic welfare. In order to have proceeds to invest in innovations and renewable energy, the Netherlands has to maintain its international position and foster its economic growth. This paradox forces the country to consider other, longer-term options, to slowly transform its industry into a more environmentally sustainable one. Therefore, the Dutch government invests heavily in innovative initiatives from citizens and entrepreneurs, as well as technical innovation studies at universities .
A typical view in Amsterdam: a large number of bikes next to the canals.
Though the results of these transformations are not yet noticeable, many transformations are being made. Schiphol airport, for example, has partnered with energy company Eneco to convert the airport to 100% wind energy by the end of this year . The port of Rotterdam is in the process of building a waste-to-chemistry plant that will transform up to 360,000 tons of waste into 220,000 tons of green methanol. The facility is the first of its kind in Europe, and will eliminate over 300,000 tons of CO2 emissions . The public transportation sector also contributes to these innovations: it has committed to “providing 100% emissions-free busses by 2025 and removing all gas and diesel vehicles from the road by 2030, positioning the country as a leader in sustainable regional and urban ground transport” . Even in the biking sector, which seemed eco-friendly to start with, positive developments are made. The startup “SwapFiets” offers recycled, good-as-new bikes including a 24/7 reparation services for an attractive monthly fee, incentivizing people to join this circular economy initiative instead of simply buying a new bike once their old bike no longer works or is lost. Lastly, in the solar sector, the Netherlands installed 853 megawatts of solar in 2017, which was an increase of 60% in one year. That year, more than half a million homes ran on solar power – 40% more than in the previous year .
Leader or laggard?
When looking at the facts, it is obvious that the Netherlands has yet to lower its carbon footprint significantly and many improvements have to be made. However, this does not mean that the country is lagging in terms of sustainability. Quite the contrary: when it comes to sustainable developments and innovation, the Netherlands is a clear leader.
 Netherlands Foreign Investment Agency (20 April 2018), “How the Dutch lead in Sustainability”, Invest in Holland. Available Online (link) [Last Accessed: 19.09.2018]
 CBS (9 March 2018), “Netherlands closer to achieving Sustainability Goals”, Central Bureau for Statistics. Available Online (link) [Last Accessed: 20.09.2018]
 Marianne Chagnon (18 December 2016), “The Netherlands and Sustainability: Suprisingly not that good”, Dutchreview. Available Online (link) [Last Accessed: 19.09.2018]
 Rogier van Rooij (12 July 2017), “Netherlands One Of Least Sustainable EU Countries. How Did The Dutch Get Their Green Image?”, CleanTechnica. Available Online (link) [Last Accessed: 20.09.2018]
 Department of Economic and Social Affairs (2 July 2013), “Rapid urbanization threatens sustainable development”, United Nations. Available Online (link) [Last Accessed: 18.09.2018]
With online sales in Western Europe having increased by 15.6% from 2015 to 2016, and by another 14.2% in 2017, ecommerce is the fastest growing retail market of our time . What is more, this growth, corresponding to online spending for retail, is not expected to cease to exist. Retail is defined as sales of merchandise to the final consumer, excluding cooked food, restaurants, automobiles and vehicle fuel. Ecommerce therefore captures all online purchases within the retail sector, meaning purchases that included a transaction made using the internet or at distance . Being not just the fastest growing, but also the largest retail market makes ecommerce an important market to acknowledge and explore. In this blog, the Spanish online retail market is investigated and current trends and developments within the sector are identified.
Spanish retail market in past decade and the rise of ecommerce
As Spain was hit by the financial crisis in 2008 and had to deal with a tremendous unemployment wave in the years thereafter, the Spanish retail industry suffered from a large drop in both value and volume (see graph). Though an improvement of the market slowly appeared again in 2012/2013, value and volume of the Spanish retail industry have not reached the same levels as before the crisis . Of course, the Spanish economy is still growing. However, analyses show that the improvement of the market as it is observed in the graph is mainly caused by the rise of ecommerce. In fact, the ecommerce industry was one of the few Spanish sectors that reflected a double digit-growth in 2011 and 2012 . What is more, the impact of the growth of the ecommerce sector on the retail industry in general is magnified by a rise in the size of ecommerce relative to retail in general. The percentage of ecommerce of the total retail industry in Spain doubled in the period 2013 to 2018 (from 3.5% to more than 7%) .
Retail sales in Spain 
Spain’s current ecommerce environment
There are currently three main trends that drive the Spanish ecommerce market : first, logistics are massively enhanced by offering products online, which increase (worldwide) sales for many Spanish sellers. Second, when it comes to the usage of smartphones, Spain is considered to have one of the highest smartphone penetration rates in Europe, enabling further ecommerce growth . Third, the final trend that arises due to market progression is the integration of (big) data analytics, artificial intelligence, and chatterbots. This is now the most relevant trend for industry participants, as it is the most recent one and consequently leads to many innovative developments and jobs within the sector. In terms of market environment, there are about 23.6 million ecommerce users in Spain, approximately half of its population, and this number is expected to grow to 29.2 million in 2021 . Of the online transactions, more than a third are made by using Credit cards (34%), followed by cash (32%), electronic bank transfer (20%) and eWallet (14%). The most significant payment option in Spain is 4B, which has 20 million cards circulating in the country. After that, credit and debit cards of Euro6000 are also commonly in use . Of the online purchases, the majority is done via the most popular websites of Amazon, Carrefour, eBay, El Corte Ingles, Mediamarkt, PC Componentes, Vente-Privee.com, Zalando, and Zara [2,3].
Future outlook and possible investment opportunities
As a market is rising, investment opportunities rise with it. In the retail sector in general, more and more investments are made: the Spanish retail market alone received 3.9 billion euros of investments in 2017, which was the largest investment volume in any sector of that year and a rise of 31% of investments in the sector compared to the year before . As for the ecommerce sector specifically, it is hard to assess the total investment made as investments in online payment, websites and online stores all fall within its scope. The opportunities per sector within ecommerce are summarized on several websites (one example: link), confirming the wide variety of options to invest in (B2B, ecommerce services, ecommerce intellectual property rights, cross-border ecommerce, etcetera) . Next to that, 75% of all investors in the Spanish retail and ecommerce sector are international investors . Thus, when considering ecommerce in Spain as a next investment move, many opportunities can be considered.
 Ecommerce in Spain. Ecommerce news. Available Online (link) [Last Accessed: 11.09.2018]
 Retail: What does the future hold for a sector in transformation – Spain February 2018. JJL Spain. Available Online (link) [Last Accessed: 13.09.2018]
 Online Retailing: Britain, Europe, US and Canada 2017. Centre for retail research. Available Online (link) [Last Accessed: 12.09.2018]
Of the 20 best global innovations of the year 2017, 3 initiatives originated from Singapore . According to the Bloomberg Innovation Index, Singapore is ranked 3rd globally when it comes to innovation . Next to that, Singapore is ranked as the number one smart city according to ABI’s and Juniper’s researches in 2018 . If that is not enough, the world bank names Singapore as the “easiest place in the world to do business”, and Singapore was the main subject of a Michael Porter Harvard Business Innovation case study . If there is one thing that these facts bear in common, it is their message that Singapore, as a city and country in one, is a successful hub for doing innovative business. What is the cause that led Singapore to be this successful when it comes to innovations?
Singapore’s “Home” strategy
According to Damian Chan, international director at the Singapore Economic Development Board – the leading governmental agency that decides on the nation’s strategy for innovation – the “success” of Singapore is not caused by just one factor, rather it is driven by a general “welcoming approach to business” as a basis for everything that Singapore does . Singapore was formed a little more than 50 years ago, when it became independent from Malaysia. At the start of being a new nation, the Economic Development Board (EDB) was formed in order to create new jobs, attract international companies and enhance the development of export-oriented industries to lead Singapore, as small as it was and with the few resources it had, towards becoming an independent nation. In this process, the focus of the EDB slowly started to include a focus on innovation, motivated by the need to stay ahead of global competition . The result: Singapore’s “Home” strategy: “Home for Business. Home for Innovation. Home for Talent” .
The attractiveness of doing business in Singapore
When it comes to attractiveness for businesses, Singapore already has the advantage of its unique characteristics: being a small, Western and developed country in Asia. These characteristics matter: new regulations can quickly be set and applied in a small country and offer, in combination with business efficiency and knowledge, a fast-growing, future-minded business environment . What is more, Singapore is often seen as the gateway for the Western world to Southeast Asia, a region where resources are ample yet corruption reigns. Singapore is the rare exception of a non-corrupt nation in the region. Add English as the country’s official language to that and it quickly becomes clear that Singapore is an attractive investment for businesses that want to reach out to Southeast Asia .
The “Home” strategy applied
However favourable these business conditions of Singapore are, they would not sustain if the EDB had not recognised them and created the “Home” strategy. The strategy enables these conditions to further develop and even strengthen, placing Singapore far above other Southeast Asian countries when it comes to foreign investments . The “Home” strategy is applied to all sectors related to innovation and business, for example the start-up scene, (digital) technologies, and education. This entails that Singapore is investing enormous budgets in these sectors, for the development of both enabling regulations as well as a stimulating environment. By creating laws that are favourable and even financially incentivising for start-ups or technology related firms, and developing multiple incubators, hubs, and open workspaces across the city, Singapore successfully pushes for innovation. Moreover, Singapore keeps investing in these sectors, even when results have already been seen: the nation recently created a new innovation fund of 1 billion Singaporean Dollars to drive enterprise growth . The results are astonishing: Singapore doubled its number of start-ups from 22,000 in 2003 to 43,000 in 2016, and in the same time-span, the number of tech start-ups also roughly doubled (from 2,800 to 4,300) . Next to that, it obtained the reputation of the number one smart city, a highly ranked innovation hub and the go-to place for start-ups, as mentioned in the introduction. All in all, it indeed seems as if the “Home” strategy works. Therefore, when it comes to innovation and business, it is of importance to keep Singapore high on the radar.
In 2013, Spain became the first country in the world to have a renewable power as its primary source of energy. This renewable source was wind power, and provided 20.9 percent of the country’s energy needs of that year. Moreover, a total of 42.4 percent of all energy used originated from renewable sources, which includes wind, solar, and combined-cycle plant power . Why was Spain one of the first European countries to successfully adapt its energy production to the threat of global warming, and therewith stimulate its renewable energy development? How has Spain’s wind energy developed ever since? In this blog, we will dive into the topic of wind energy in Spain, and provide answers to these questions.
The rise of renewable energy in Spain
Due to a general push for the use of renewable energy sources in the EU in 2009 , the Spanish energy organisation IDEA (Instituto para la Diversificación y Ahorro de la Energía) installed the National Renewable Energy Action Plan 2011-2020 (link) in 2010. In this plan, the organisation set goals for Spain with regard to overall energy usage, heating and cooling, electricity, and transport, which included a minimum percentage of energy generated from renewable sources for each category. Ever since, Spain has invested largely in renewable energy development. Of all renewable energy sources, both the development and success of one source in particular were increasing rapidly. This sources is windenergy. The potential of wind energy in Spain was discovered after one specific, particularly windy day in November 2011, when 59 percent of the nation’s power was produced by wind energy . As this proved that Spain is not only sunny, but also windy, the developments of wind farms in the country were strongly stimulated by the national energy organization which led Spain to be the first nation ever to have wind energy, or any renewable energy, as its primary energy source in 2013 .
Current developments of wind energy
Since then, Spain has continued to develop its wind energy production and consequently maintained its position amongst the top four countries in the world (after China, USA and Germany) and as the number two in Europe  in terms of renewable energy production. Over the past decade, Spain has increased its renewable power by 53 percent which includes the generation of 61,925 gigawatts per hour of wind energy in 2017 (24.3% of the total year-average power usage, 252,755 GWh) . These developments are not expected to slow down, as organisations are looking to invest 30,500 megawatts of new capacity to further support the integration of renewables. Enel Green Power, for example, acquired five wind farms in February 2018 with a total capacity of 132 MW. Moreover, the company identified 29 new wind projects that will allow for an additional capacity of 540 MW once installed, which is scheduled to be in 2019 . Another example is the autonomous community government of Aragón, who authorised 1,778 MW of wind projects that were awarded in the May 2017 energy auction to be installed before the end of 2019 .
Effects on economy and future outlook
Recent data shows that in the first half of 2018, 45.8 percent of electricity in Spain came from renewable resources, of which the majority is generated by wind power . Next to the positive impact of this rise of renewable energy sources on the environment, the increase in wind farms and wind energy development have stimulated the Spanish economy by creating more than 22,000 jobs. Considering the characteristics of the sector, and the increasing demand for renewable resources, the number of new jobs is expected to grow . Moreover, Spain has obtained a top five position in worldwide exports of small wind turbines for domestic usage. Small wind turbines can be installed on the roofs of houses and can provide energy for a household . The increasing popularity of these small turbines can boost the Spanish economy future as well, offering a positive outlook in the near future.
 Enel Green Power (February 26, 2018), The Spanish Wind Energy Pushing Europe Forward, ENEL. Available Online (link) [Last Accessed: 30.08.2018]
 Tsvetomira Tsanova (December 29, 2017), Renewables Produce 33.7% of Spain’s Power in 2017, Renewables Now. Available Online (link) [Last Accessed: 28.08.2018]
 Bradley Stokes (July 15, 2018), Spain Takes Big Steps Towards Renewable Energy, The Olive Press. Available Online (link) [Last Accessed 29.08.2018]
 John Wolfendale (July 30, 2018), Is Wind Power in Spain Practical on a Domestic Scale?, Eco Vida Homes. Available Online (link) [Last Accessed: 30.08.2018]
 Lucas Morais (August 6, 2018), Spain’s Aragon Okays Construction of 1.78 GW of Wind Projects, Renewables Now. Available Online (link) [Last Accessed: 28.08.2018]
 Matthew Humphries (January 16, 2014), Spain Becomes First Country To Use Wind Power As Primary Source Of Energy, GEEK.com. Available Online (link) [Last Accessed: 30.08.2018]
Following several news items in the past week concerning Blockchain in Spain, it becomes clear that the Spanish Central Bank has an opposing strategy for the up-and-coming distributed ledger technology (DLT) involving cryptocurrencies than most other Central Banks. In what way does the Banco de España (BDE) differentiate itself? What are the consequences of this for both Spain, as well as the general development of how banks see cryptocurrencies and the blockchain? This article serves to provide answers to these questions.
Though believing in the underlying blockchain technology, most Central Banks (including the European Central Bank, ECB) have expressed concerns regarding cryptocurrencies, as a specific part of the blockchain. They argue that, though cryptocurrencies offer a wide range of new opportunities (for example in securities settlements mechanisms) operational challenges and complexity issues are of unknown size and, therefore, highly risky . Consequently, the majority of the Central Banks do not (yet) shape clear regulations and standards that provide an outline for the technology to further develop in the market as much as they ideally should .
Several Central Banks or governments have initiated research in the field and thereby have undertaken an important first step. These include the Bank of Canada, Bank of Japan, Sveriges Riksbank and the ECB . Only few, however, have openly committed to blockchain and to developing regulations around it. A great example of one of these is the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), who started a blockchain experiment in November 2016 as a “road to regulatory understanding” . Still, the MAS, just as the other “openly committed” central organisations, does support cryptocurrencies. It merely acknowledges and explores its opportunities, while remaining to distrust crypto. And then there is the Banco de España. The BDE recently published a report (link) in favor of both cryptocurrencies and the blockchain, stating that they could have a positive impact on the Spanish economy . The argument in the report is made by Galo Nuño, the Direct General of Economy at the BDE, and poses that the blockchain technology and a hypothetical “Central-Bank-Issued Digital Currency (CBDC)” could help track the country’s money supply. This introduced concept of the CBDC is a new type of cryptocurrency, one that is established by government regulation and controlled by the Central Bank itself. Even though the BDE mentions that further investigations are needed, the statement of a nation-wide organization implying that “Central Banks should consider implementing cryptocurrencies” is exceptional. The next step for Nuño is to further explore the consequences of his ideas and demonstrate that the usage of cryptocurrencies can be positive for a Central Bank .
What are the outcomes of the support for cryptocurrencies by the BDE? What could be the positive impact of this CBDC in the Spain, and for the blockchain technology in general? The answers to these questions are, of course, speculative. First, the concept of the Central Bank’s digital currency must be further developed and researched, which means that the implementation is not guaranteed. Nonetheless, the improvements for the Spanish economy are expected to include a more stabilised financial infrastructure and an improved management of interest rates . Furthermore, the report of the Spanish Central Bank encourages other organisations in Spain to develop blockchain innovations. Spain is recently moving fast towards cryptocurrency adoption , which clearly coheres with the supporting standpoint of the Central Bank. Second, the impact of the BDE’s report for development of cryptocurrency regulations and strategies at other banks in general is also of a positive kind. Spain’s support of cryptocurrencies is inspirational, and can stimulate other central banks (and governments) to reassess their distrust in crypto and more actively pursue cryptocurrency and blockchain opportunities. The results of this refreshing approach by the Banco de España are thus far positive ones.
 Oliver Thew (March 29, 2018), Central Banks Must Adapt to Blockchain, OMFIF. Available Online (link) [Last Accessed: 21.08.2018]
 Ian Tozer (August 9, 2018), Spain’s Central Bank: Cryptocurrency Could Improve Monetary Policy, Bitcoinist. Available Online (link) [Last Accessed: 22.08.2018]
 Annaliese Milano (March 27, 2018), Central Banks Say Blockchain Shake Securities Settlement, Coindesk. Available Online (link) [Last Accessed: 23.08.2018]
 Darryn Pollock (February 20, 2018), Singapore’s Government Blockchain Experiment Is a Road to Regulatory Understanding, Cointelegraph. Available Online (link) [Last Accessed, 22.08.2018]